Although the Algonquin and the Montagnais were allies of Samuel de Champlain, they refused to supply him with furs or to guide his expeditions westward unless he helped them to defeat their Iroquois enemies. In 1609, the founder of Québec joined them in their attack on the Lake Champlain Iroquois. Although familiar with the bow and arrow, the Iroquois were surprised by the arquebuses used against them, weapons which were still unknown to them. Two of their chiefs and a number of their warriors were killed, and the rest fled from the battle. Except for brief periods of peace, Champlain fought the Iroquois continually until his death in 1635, by which time they had become the main enemies of the French, and allies of the Dutch of New Amsterdam (New York) and the English, who had recently arrived in North America.

The Iroquois of Lake Champlain
Deffaite des Yroquois au Lac de Champlain [Defeat of the Iroquois of Lake Champlain], illustration from Les voyages du sieur de Champlain Xaintongeois..., Paris, Jean Berjon, 1613
CA BNC Réserve FC330 C3 1613